Other Parenteral Agents in Development for RA
More parenteral agents are currently in phase II and phase III development (Table).47-67
Table. Additional Parenteral Biologics in Phase II and Phase III Development for RA47-67
Abbreviations: AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; BAFF, B-cell activating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
Belatacept, a second-generation T-cell costimulation modulator like abatacept, demonstrated preliminary efficacy in a dose-finding, placebo-controlled phase I/II study published in 2002,68 but has not progressed to phase III trials in RA. Belatacept was recently granted FDA approval for the prevention of organ rejection in adult kidney transplant patients.69
A greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms in the pathophysiology of RA has enhanced exploration of novel therapeutic approaches to targeting the main immunologic pathways in RA. Encouraging results in early clinical trials have led to continued development for several new parenteral drugs, some of which are entering phase III trials. Ongoing research will confirm the efficacy and safety of these novel parenteral agents, and potentially expand current treatment options in RA.